Chairman Reid, Ranking Member Inhofe and Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to discuss the Intelligent Transportation Systems program with you today - systems that are saving lives, time, and money, and improving the quality of life for all Americans. My name is Lawrence Yermack; I am the Chairman of the Board of the Intelligent Transportation Society of America (ITS America). ITS America is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization, with over 600 members, including state departments of transportation, associations, non-profits, universities, and private companies. These member organizations represent some 60,000 individuals involved in intelligent transportation programs around the world. ITS America also serves as a utilized Federal Advisory Committee to the U.S. Department of Transportation, rendering programmatic advice to the US DOT on issues of research, development, and deployment of ITS technologies.
Since its founding in 1990, ITS America has been, and continues to be, the only public-private partnership focused exclusively on fostering the use of advanced technologies in today's surface transportation systems. ITS America first received modest Federal funding under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 (P.L. 102-240, Dec. 19, 1991). Since 1991, the national ITS program has pursued research, technology development, and field-testing of ITS technologies, and has promoted the deployment of ITS applications.
In addition to serving as the volunteer Chairman of ITS America, I am the President of PB Farradyne, Parson Brinckerhoff's intelligent transportation systems company, responsible for the financial management, technical oversight and operations of the company. Over my career, I have worked in both the public and private sectors and I have considerable professional experience in the fields of financial and program management of toll systems, ITS and advanced toll technologies.
I am honored to appear before you today to discuss the progress we have made in deploying intelligent transportation systems. My message to you today is this: the significant investment that the federal government has made in ITS, along with investments made by states and the private sector, have been well spent and have delivered meaningful and significant benefits to the safety and mobility of the American people.
To illustrate this point, in my remarks I will address how ITS has been deployed across the country, discuss the many benefits generated by deployment of ITS, and finally touch on the future direction of ITS.
A Framework for Understanding ITS Deployment
Since the inception of the ITS program in the early 1 990's, government agencies - at all levels have come to realize the important benefits that ITS technologies can provide. Proper investment in ITS can produce a safe, efficient, and environmental friendly transportation system that provides mobility for all of its citizens.
The private sector also has come to realize the vast market opportunity that ITS provides not only in the business-to-government and business-to-business marketplaces, but also increasingly in the consumer marketplace. The ITS program has laid the foundation for an explosion in consumer-oriented technologies.
WHAT HAS BEEN DEPLOYED?
At the end of 2000, 55 of the 75 largest metropolitan areas had met the goal of medium-to-high deployment of ITS. Here are a few of the significant milestones.
-- Electronic toll collection has been installed on 73% of existing toll road mileage.
-- Centralized or closed loop control has been installed at 49% of signalized intersections.
-- Computer-aided dispatch has been installed in 67% of the emergency management vehicles and 36% have in-vehicle route guidance. Electronic surveillance has been installed at 65% of the signalized intersection and 71% have emergency preemption.
-- Traffic Management Centers have been established in two-thirds of the areas monitoring freeway traffic and providing early notification of incidents.
Over 384 public transit systems nationwide have installed, or are installing, components of ITS to provide the public with safer and more effective public transportation.
-- Advanced communication systems have been installed at 213 transit agencies.
-- Automatic vehicle location systems have been installed at 154 agencies.
-- Electronic payment systems have been installed at 108 transit agencies.
-- Automatic passenger counters have been installed at 154 transit agencies.
-- Automated Transit information is available 163 transit agencies.
-- Computer-aided Dispatch systems are available at 152 agencies.
-- Traffic signal priority is available at 55 agencies.
Consumer Automobile Programs
Telematics devices (advanced in-vehicle communications technologies) allow for automated crash identification, keyless entry, remote diagnostics, and a variety of mobile commerce applications. According to a study by McKinsey & Company, the telematics marketplace will likely generate up to $100 billion in sales in the United States, Japan and Western Europe by 2010. Onstar, one of more recognized telematics brand names, currently has 1.2 million subscribers. Over 8 million navigation units have been deployed in automobiles worldwide. The Federal ITS Program has been essential to the growth of this emerging marketplace as well as to the development of other safety-enhancing vehicular technologies.
The Light Vehicle Program of the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative is a crucial part of this deployment. The program establishes minimum performance requirements and standards, and fosters the development of cooperative systems, both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure.
Examples of completed accomplishments are the NHTSA/Volpe analysis of Forward Collision and Roadway Departure countermeasures and the Field Trial of Adaptive Cruise Control systems. Ongoing research projects include the Field Trial of a Forward Collision Warning system and the establishment of the IVI Enabling Research Consortium for joint public-private research. Key future efforts will include the Field Trial of an advanced Roadway Departure system and the identification and design of cooperative systems for near-term deployment.
There are two significant means by which the IVI program has accelerated the growth of in-vehicle electronic marketplace. As wireless and location technology has progressed, there has been a concomitant increase in the ability of vehicle manufacturers to offer safety, information and entertainment features. IVI research is revealing the safety effects associated with these systems and will determine the availability of these features while the vehicle is in motion. Safety warning systems based on IVI activities include deployed Adaptive Cruise Control with safety warnings and first-generation Roadway Departure Warning systems (announced for deployment).
Commercial Vehicle Programs
The trucking industry has begun to adopt three ITS technologies in attempt to enhance the safety, efficiency, and productivity of the movement of goods on America's roads: transponders, Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN), and Intelligent Vehicle technologies for heavy trucks.
Transponders have the ability to monitor drivers, vehicles and loads to ensure safe, and efficient operations. For instance, transponders which have already been approved for use by the U. S. Customs Service, allow a safety enforcement agency such as the State Police, or State Motor Vehicle Department to input data related to safety, taxes, permitting, driver identification and freight load information in a single device. Use of this type of technology ensures the safe operation of all trucks, including those domiciled outside our nations' borders, as they travel on U.S. roads, while permitting the tariff agency to perform its functions as well. The goal is to facilitate the deployment of a single multi-purpose transponder to handle functions including toll payment, safety, credentialing, weigh in motion pre-clearance, and other e-commerce applications. This is a rapid growth area and presently there are 30 states, which employ transponders for preclearing trucks through roadside inspection stations. The 13 Northeast states throughout the Interagency Group employ a single transponder known as EZPass for its electronic toll collection system which boasts of over 6 million devices in use today. These types of transponders can ultimately be used at the borders to record and monitor the entry of safe vehicles and drivers into and throughout the country.
The Second area of interest is credential administration. States and the motor carrier industry have collaborated to develop and deploy such programs consistent with the Federal Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) architecture.
Eight States have completed the initiation of a CVISN and 34 others are actively in the process of completion. Results of testing have shown many positive results including a 75% reduction in the current cost of credential administration for both the States and industry, with a $20 per process savings in fees (Kentucky estimates based upon systems deployed in the State). Also a cost/benefit savings for motor carriers ranging between 4:1 and 20:1, depending on carrier size (American Trucking Associations Foundation Study), and reductions in state administrative costs resulting in these programs being self sufficient in most states (study by the National Governors Association).
The Last area of potential benefits from technological deployments relates to the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative for Heavy Trucks. This is an ongoing program sponsored by the US DOT with partners from various private sector enterprises. The benefits derived from front-end collision warning devices when coupled with the action of the adaptive cruise control systems are potentially enormous. Field Operations Tests are underway to determine the exact extent of these expected savings, not only in dollars, but also in lives saved. Other tests now underway include work zone warnings, and rollover warning and protection devices.
What have we achieved?
Four benefit areas and associated goals have been identified against which change and progress can be measured. These goals provide the guideposts for fully realizing the opportunities that ITS technology systems can provide in enhancing the operation of the nation's transportation systems, in improving the quality of life for all citizens, and in increasing user satisfaction, whether for business or personal travel.
Some of the benefits that have been realized by using ITS to improve safety include:
-- Automated enforcement of traffic signals has reduced violations 20% to 75%, leading to reductions in crashes and fatalities.
-- Ramp metering has shown that these systems reduce crashes by 15% to 50%.
-- Implementation of ITS results in smoother traffic flow and fewer stops, which enhances safety by providing less speed variance and fewer opportunities for conflicts.
-- Road Weather Information Systems, combining pavement condition and other environmental sensors with driver advisories through Dynamic Message Signs (DMS), have proven effective in lowering speeds and increasing safety during adverse driving conditions.
-- Provision of a silent alarm feature with an AVL system helps improve safety of many transit systems around the country. In Denver, this feature decreased the number of passenger assaults per 100,000 passengers by 33% between 1992 and 1997.
Some of the benefits that have been realized by using ITS to improve system efficiency and economy include:
-- Adaptive signal control has reduced delay from 14%-44%.\1\
\1\ Data on the benefits of ITS that are presented in this section and subsequent sections of the White Paper were extracted from the ITS Benefits Database, located at http://~www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov/
-- Aggressive incident management programs have saved travelers in metropolitan areas 100,000-2,000,000 hours per year.
-- Ramp metering systems have produced 8%-60% increases in speed (i.e., improved throughput) on freeways.
-- Electronic toll collection can reduce the costs of plaza-related roadway maintenance by 14%. A study of the Carquinez Bridge in California estimates a person-time savings of nearly 80,000 hours (per year), more than $1 million in lost time.
-- Incident management has saved travelers in a metropolitan area $1-$45 million per year, depending on the extent of the system.
-- An electronic fare payment system in New Jersey has saved $2.7 million in reduced handling costs of fare media with increased revenues of 12% after automated fare collection implementation.
-- Implementation of"next vehicle arriving" technology, AVL(automatic vehicle location), and CAD (computer-aided dispatching) has added more certainty for many transit riders in several cities. In the Denver Regional Transportation District, for example, the number of passengers that arrived at stops late decreased by 21%; in Portland, Oregon, the Tri-Met system achieved a 9.4% improvement in on-time performance.
Some of the benefits that have been realized by using ITS to improve users' mobility in and access to the transportation system include:
-- Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) have improved the ability of individuals to manage their travel, improving the likelihood of choosing a departure time, route, and mode of travel enabling them to arrive at or before desired arrival time. ATIS users reduce late arrivals by 69% when compared to those who don't use ATIS.
-- The Federal Communications Commission has allocated the "51 1" number for the provision of traveler information. Data gathered by traffic management systems, including accidents, road conditions, and alternative routes can be directly accessed by drivers to empower drivers to make optimum route selection, to shorten travel time, and to reduce the stress of congestion.
Smart card technology is simplifying the daily commute of more than 100,000 daily transit users in the Washington DC area. The New York City Metro Card system is expected to save an estimated $70 million per year in fare evasion. Ventura County California will save an estimated $90,000 by eliminating transfer slips.
Public transportation providers in rural areas can achieve cost efficiencies by increasing ridership. The CAD system in Sweetwater County, Wyoming (which allows same-day ride requests to be accepted) has contributed to a 3,000 passenger monthly increase while reducing operational expenses by 50% over a 5-year period on a per passenger basis.
How has ITS promoted a cleaner environment and reduced energy consumption?
Some of the benefits that have been realized by using ITS to mitigate the negative community and lifestyle impacts of congestion, crashes, air quality, noise and other factors include:
-- Electronic Toll Collection in Florida has resulted in emissions reductions of 7.3% for CO, and 7.2% for HC with 40% ETC usage.
-- Improvements to traffic signal control systems have reduced fuel consumption between 2% and 13%.
-- TransGuide in San Antonio, Texas reports estimated fuel consumption savings of up to 2,600 gallons per major incident as a consequence of reduced congestion during incident response and clearing.
-- The development and use of better models and more robust data on environmental impacts will provide more information on the extent to which ITS technologies positively affect the environment and how ITS can be used proactively to address problems in nonattainment areas. The future goal is to save a minimum of one billion gallons of gasoline each year and to reduce emissions at least in proportion to these fuel savings through the use of ITS technologies.
What role has ITS America played in deployment?
Since its inception in 1991 ITS America has served a pivotal role in the development and deployment of ITS technologies and systems. In 1992 ITS America developed the first Program Plan which has served as the blue print for ITS deployment in the last decade. ITS America was instrumental in the development of the National ITS Architecture and development of standards working closely with the Standard Development Organizations. Today, ITS America continues to bring the diverse interests of the ITS Community to the table to foster cooperative development and deployment of these technologies. As rate of deployment increases, the need for this cooperation between state, local, and federal governments and the private sector only increases. ITS America's technical committees (which meet with regularity) continue provide a forum for technical experts for the private sector, government, academia to reach consensus essential to the timely deployment of ITS systems.
A Vision for the Future
In each of these areas, the integrated nature of ITS technologies and services promotes opportunities (and presents challenges) for the institutional reform and reinvention that is so critical to the next stage of the transportation service delivery and infrastructure management.
In the future, the initial investment in ITS infrastructure and in-vehicle technologies may be seen as the first wave of a technology revolution. The second wave of the ITS technology revolution will be the integration of localized intelligent transportation systems into larger and larger integrated networks of information. Communications from vehicle-to-infrastructure and from infrastructure-to-vehicle will become richer. Both the quality and quantity of data transmission will increase. And as a result of network integration, not only will we see greater efficiencies in America's transportation system; we will see a fundamental shift in how America does business.
For example, the mass adoption of personal computers in the 1970s and 1980s did not significantly increase workplace productivity until these computers were networked in the 1990s -- and then the increased productivity was dramatic. Similarly, while the initial investment in ITS has produced only modest gains in efficiency, once these transportation information systems are widely-deployed and networked, then, we will enjoy dramatically-increased efficiencies.
Development of an Integrated Network of Transportation Information
The future vision for surface transportation is based on information management and availability, on connectivity, and on system control and optimization- in short, the creation of an integrated national network of transportation information.
The information to be gathered and managed includes the physical state of the infrastructure, how it is being used (real-time and historically), how it is being maintained, and the environment, including relevant weather conditions. This information network depends on forging new forms of stakeholder cooperation across all sectors.
Seamless Travel for People: For the traveling public, an integrated network of transportation information makes travel reasonable and convenient for all users, regardless of age or physical disability. It means availability of static and real time information on the availability and condition of components of the transportation system that will allow choice of travel mode. It means full coordination between transit, rail, highway, and arterial systems. It means eliminating missed connections and, through work-zone management, eliminating confusion during detours and diversions.
Information will be available on all modes via web-based, radio and calls centers and will include automobile and transit travel. Other information services will include online mapping and driving direction, en-route variable message signs and kiosks, and personal subscription services as well as real-time information for both pre-trip planning and enroute modifications, covering the current and expected conditions.
Seamless Freight Movement: For the movement of freight, an integrated network of transportation information means the availability of information that will facilitate shipments moving more efficiently from origin to destination both within and across modes. It means real time information at points where shipments transfer from one node of transportation to another and cross-jurisdictional boundaries. Shippers and customers will have better information on the location of cargo and mobile assets throughout the trip. It means information will be exchanged more efficiently to and among regulatory agencies.
Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies
Advanced crash avoidance technologies will help to significantly reduce the number of vehicle crashes. Unprecedented levels of safety, mobility, and efficiency will be made possible through the development, integration, and deployment of a new generation of in-vehicle electronics and vehicle automation. These technologies also support selective automated enforcement, including the determination of fitness to drive.
In-Vehicle Electronics and Vehicle Automation: Four kinds of in-vehicle electronics products will be available: information products, diagnostic/prognostic products, driver assistance products, and active safety products. All will help drivers and vehicles to perform better and more safely.
Driver Qualification and Automated Enforcement: Technology will be available to assure that a driver/operator is appropriately licensed, unimpaired, and alert. Automated enforcement that is carefully applied and protective of personal privacy will reduce crashes and encourage safe and responsible driving.
Automatic Crash Detection and Response
Getting emergency response teams to the scene of a crash or other injury-producing incident as quickly as possible is critical to saving lives. ITS technology will allow emergency response teams to receive timely notice of the incident and be efficiently routed to the scene and then to the hospital. It means they will be aware of and able to convey the nature and degree of the injuries and thereby provide timely medical care,
Traffic-sensitive route planning software will identify which EMS unit, among those available and appropriate for the specific incident, can arrive at the accident site in the shortest travel time. Route guidance software will efficiently direct the unit to the scene, with the way cleared and the trip speeded by traffic signal preemption and other traffic control mechanisms. At the scene, direct audio and video communication with the trauma center will provide the EMS team with instructions on immediate treatment.
Advanced Transportation Systems (encompassing multiple transportation modes)
Advanced transportation systems facilitate better management of the flow of vehicles (automobiles, public transit vehicles, and trains) through the physical infrastructure; better vehicle operator decisions based on the cooperative exchange of data between vehicles and the infrastructure, and system automation.
Advanced Transportation Management Systems: Advanced transportation management systems enable area-wide surveillance and detection, rapid acquisition of traffic flow data, real-time evaluation of traffic flows, predictive capabilities regarding near-term, real-time operational responses to traffic flow changes, and evaluation of the operational responses to traffic flow changes.
Vehicle-Infr~astructure Cooperation: An important foundation for effective transportation management is an exchange of information between equipped vehicles and the infrastructure. The infrastructure may include instrumented roadways or wireless communications between vehicles and an information provider. Vehicles will report on the rate at which traffic is flowing, the condition of the roads, weather conditions, etc. The infrastructure-based system will analyze these data to create an overall understanding of the roadway environment and report this back to vehicles and their drivers/ operators to use in planning travel.
Transportation Automation: Technologies will include automation of all or part of the driving task for private cars, public transportation vehicles, and maintenance vehicles through an intelligent physical infrastructure. The primary objective is to increase capacity and flow. Research in infrastructure-vehicle automation will include automated rapid transit systems, precision docking of vehicles, dedicated lanes for automated trucks, automatic guidance of snow removal and other maintenance vehicles, and eventually, fully automated passenger vehicles.
Mobile Commerce: The same in-vehicle communication systems (or telematics) which enable automated crash identification and vehicle-infrastructure cooperation allows the automobile to become the point-of-purchase for consumer transactions. Hotel reservations, shopping, and even stock transactions can be (and to an extent are currently being) conducted through the use of telematics devices. The GPS and other vehicle-identifying technologies inherent in ITS, will enable businesses to offer consumers location-specific goods and services. The advent of mobile commerce will be part of the fundamental shift in how Americans do business through the use of ITS.
ITS research and deployment must continue to flourish within the foreseeable future. ITS technologies are quickly becoming part of the fabric of design and operation of our Nation's transportation system and hold the promise of continuing to provide our citizens the most efficient, the safest and the most environmentally sound transportation system in the world. We look forward in working with you to design a continuing ITS program that will fulfill the drams of the American traveling public and the private sector industry that will benefit from a vital ITS program.